A School’s History Reflected in DesignThe Basel School of Design Campaigns 2019/2020
In 2019, the Visual Communication Institute of the FHNW Academy of Art and Design in Basel commissioned the conception and design of a campaign. The goal was to generate more interest for both of the postgraduate programmes offered at the institute. One of them is the Master of Arts in Visual Communication and Iconic Research, which connects the practical knowledge and methodology of visual communication with the scientific domain by developing new approaches in image research. It is the only Swiss programme in the field of design that allows a further continuation of the students’ academic career within the context of a PhD programme. The other postgraduate programme is the International Master of Design UIC/HGK, mostly referred to as MDes. It is a collaboration between the Visual Communication Institute in Basel and the University of Illinois in Chicago. This gives students of MDes the unique opportunity to graduate with an internationally accredited Master of Design from UIC and the Swiss equivalent, a Master of Arts. Both of these programmes share the same heritage as they evolved from the renowned Basel School of Design. For that reason, the institute decided to choose the title “The Basel School of Design” for the campaign. This emphasises a very specific design tradition born in the late 1960s in Basel, which was also one of the main points of reference for the conception of the campaign design. So, what exactly is this design tradition?
Back in 1968, Armin Hofmann and Emil Ruder conceived a postgraduate programme at the Basel School of Design, the Weiterbildungsklasse für Grafik / Advanced Class for Graphic Design. This offered an intensive study of design principles and a very influential, form-related design methodology. The programme attracted students from all over the world and became an outstanding model for a modernist design education. The designs developed at the school were the results of a very process-oriented approach in which many variations are created and thoughtfully compared with each other. After sequentially improving said variations, the final design oftentimes featured a very clear formal expression of an underlying idea combined with a reduced colour scheme and matter-of-fact typography. This style in design, which is now referred to as “Swiss Style”, would become world-famous and so influential that iconic pieces of graphic design such as the wayfinding system of the New York Subway or the corporate design of Lufthansa are in many ways shaped by it. While this influential “Swiss Style” certainly was not solely created by a handful of people in a small Swiss town, many experts would still point to the Basel School of Design and the designers associated with the programme when asked about its birthplace.
The first designs developed for the campaign tried to play with the idea of those extensive variations typical in the design process taught at the Basel School of Design, by experimenting with one, if not the most, basic shape, a circle. Such a series of slight or more drastic formal variations was not only typical of the Basel School of Design back in the late 60s and 70s but is also one of the preserved traditions in today’s postgraduate programmes offered at the academy. The variations alone seemed a bit too arbitrary for the intended campaign design, which is why Prof. Michael Renner, who was involved from the commissioner’s side, proposed to create variations of visualisation for the idea of friction. While “friction” is still a bit of an abstract term to base the design on, it is certainly pointing towards some crucial aspects of the history and development of the Basel School of Design. While Armin Hofmann and Emil Ruder taught design very much according to modernist standards, a later protagonist of the Basel School, Wolfgang Weingart, popularised a different take on graphic design, specifically in regards to typographic treatment. It was an incident of friction between an established approach and a new way, which would later be described as New Wave or Swiss Punk Typography. In many ways, Wolfgang Weingart broke with the preceding modernist understanding of design and implemented a postmodern approach. The idea of “good” (typographic) design shifted, while the strong focus on the formal qualities and a design process that involves an abundance of variations was maintained. Later, when Prof. Renner took over the direction he was involved in transforming the programme into an academic degree course, the Master of Arts in Visual Communication and Iconic Research. By doing so, he again caused an incident of friction as he transformed the form-focused programme into a more intellectual study of imagery with the ambition to use the methodology of the Basel School of Design as a tool for scientific research.
In addition to referencing the variations-driven design process of the Basel School of Design, the theme of friction became relevant to the campaign design. Different notions of friction were defined as points of orientation, and multiple series of abstract, geometric illustrations were then developed to visualise the different facets of friction. While the output was rich in formal variations, the colours were reduced to a greyscale to reflect the iconic style of the Basel School.
The designs were then combined in a composition to be used as the key visual for the main component of the 2019’s campaign, a foldable poster that was sent to different academic art and design institutes. The design features a rigid layout in which the various visualisations of friction were placed. On the back of the poster, information on the Basel School of Design and both of the postgraduate programmes were set within the same grid system. The foldable poster was printed with silver instead of grey, which led to a very specific visual quality that is unfortunately mostly lost in the digital reproduction of the prints. Apart from this centrepiece of the campaign, many further applications such as an animation, graphics for social media, and printed advertisements were designed. The effort proved to be worth it as the campaign successfully increased the number of applicants for that year.
For the 2020’s edition of the Basel School of Design campaign, the theme of variation was revisited. This time, however, the second theme was the question of visual identity instead of friction, which shifted the focus from a reflection of the historical development of the institute towards its current state. Interestingly, the Visual Communication Institute which is the academic successor of the original Basel School of Design does not have its own visual identity. There is only a corporate design of the FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts, of which the Visual Communication Institute is a part. This loss of an independent visual appearance coincides with a broadening of visual styles that are taught and produced at the academy. The key visual reflects this circumstance in a playful way, by showing a rich pool of plausible but also absurd logos.
The logos are again shown as parts of a series of variations and put together to create the key visual. This time, however, the strict layout and rigid grid were abandoned to create another visual reference to the wild proliferation of styles and design approaches that are now visible at the academy. The reduced colour scheme of only black and white as well as the strict typographic layout on the back side of the poster remained so that the hint towards the roots of the Visual Communication Institute is still given. Just as the year before, many further design applications apart from the poster were produced. Altogether, the 2020’s iteration formed a successful continuation of the series of annual campaigns for the Basel School of Design.
Metaphorical Thinking in Poster DesignHow a Cognitive Theory Brings About Better Graphic Design
Metaphorical thinking or metaphorical concepts are most prominently discussed in the context of political communication. Most often, when you hear about framing an issue in a certain way for political profit, this framing is done with the help of a conceptual metaphor. Depending on your political point of view, you might either describe taxes as a financial burden or a contribution that you give back to the community that helped you grow. Speaking of a “burden” frames taxes as something that is first and foremost (extra) weight you are forced to carry, something that immobilises you to a certain degree. It is the way you talk about something that restricts your freedom, whereas the metaphorical framing of “contribution” shifts the perspective and makes paying taxes appear like a virtue. Either the virtue of helping those in need or the expression of gratitude to the community that allows one to prosper by “giving something back, now that one can do so”. One metaphorical frame is that of carrying weight, the other one is that of keeping a fair balance. It is important to recognise that metaphor is not understood as a mere figure of speech but as a way of conceptualising things. It is not that we are just saying “burden” or “contribution” instead of “tax”. What makes those metaphors so powerful is that they are providing complete conceptual systems that guide our way of thinking about an issue, in this case, taxes. “Burden” might be just one expression, but it activates a whole set of corresponding ideas that include aspects like “weight”, the feeling of being “dragged down” and hindered to “move forward” in the “journey” of life. Thinking of taxes as a burden frames them as negative and something that should be “taken off of our shoulders”. Clever politicians and PR consultants know the power of conceptual metaphors like these very well. They use them in more or less noticeable ways to influence their audience’s opinions. Once you know about these conceptual metaphors, you start noticing them everywhere. Just think about prominent terms and expressions used in today’s political debates. I am sure you have heard of “waves of refugees”, “war on terror”, “climate change”, or others.
In cognitive sciences, there is the so-called conceptual metaphor theory which tries to explain these kinds of thinking. The theory was first popularised in the late 1980s and has been further developed ever since. In its foundational book “Metaphors We Live By” by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, the essence of metaphorical thinking is boiled down to “understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 5.). Even though the focus was put on political communication so far, the given definition of metaphorical concepts makes it clear that we should be able to find them in other contexts as well. One of the most interesting contexts to look for conceptual metaphors is the domain of graphic design. In numerous cases, understanding the design or at least some parts of it in terms of another has led to unexpected and truly original designs.
What would happen, for example, if we would conceptualise the poster as a city map? Ralph Schraivogel showed us when he created the poster design “Woody Allen” for Filmpodium Zürich. As Woody Allen was the topic of the advertised event, the reference for his poster design was not just any city but New York City, or more precisely Manhattan. The typography was set along streets, which makes them appear to be street names, while the images were positioned as if they were buildings or possibly parks of the imagined city map. In a campaign designed for Roventa’s new curling iron, the designers of Publicis developed another metaphorical design concept that led to a very creative result. The campaign’s title “Curls” (original title in German is “Locken”) already gives away the point of reference for this original design solution. Instead of coming up with a graphic composition at all, the designers decided to conceptualise the printed matter itself as curly hair for this campaign. Another example to prove the creative potential of metaphorical thinking is given by the visual identity and corresponding poster series for S AM, Swiss Museum of Architecture, designed by Claudiabasel. The typographic composition was set according to the logic of architecture. This means that the most fundamental text got put at the bottom and, with decreasing importance, the remaining text material was built on top of it, just as every building starts with a fundament and ends with the lightest and smallest components on at the very top.
As one can see, being aware of the conceptual metaphor theory helps tremendously to identify and describe these kinds of designs. It is safe to assume, though, that in many cases the designers were not aware of the cognitive phenomena that was structuring their ideas. However, what would happen, if one was consciously using the insights of the conceptual metaphor theory to create design concepts? For now, we have just begun to explore its fundamental principle, but the theory has much more to offer and explore in the context of graphic design. The book “Designing in Metaphors” (original title in German is “Gestalten in Metaphern”) offers a deeper insight into this topic and even provides a foolproof method to come up with your own fitting metaphorical design concepts. While it is not possible to squeeze all of the book’s content into these few paragraphs, it might be interesting to present a few results of the design method taught in the book. As proofs of concept, different poster designs were developed for the publication, some of which visualised an early version of the method itself.
One of these designs focussed on the very definition of a method. Depending on the source you are referring to, the phrasing might change, but essentially, a method can be defined as a series of steps to take in order to reach the desired goal. “Proceeding step by step” became the motive of one of the poster designs created with the help of the book’s method. The typographic composition functions as a visual interpretation of “taking steps”. As the final poster design shows, the numbers 1 to 5, which represents the steps taken, do not only lead forward but also upward to an “elevated” result.
Another motive produced with the book’s method was “lighting up” which is a theme often used in representations of coming up with or understanding a (good) idea. Just think about the glowing light bulb used to illustrate just that in children’s cartoons or expressions like “having a bright idea” or “an illuminating talk”. In the context of the poster design, the motive “lighting up” obviously refers to coming up with a metaphorical design concept.
Many sketches tried to visualise this motive by creating compositions in which a dense, dark structure in one or multiple areas of the format opens up and transitions into white space. In many occasions, this coincided with a playful treatment of contrasts within the poster design. The final design does not only feature lines that represent light rays but also a composition in which said lines are positioned with increasing density from bottom to top. This effectively produces a brightness gradient that dominates the poster design as a whole. In addition to these graphical elements and their composition, the poster was printed on fluorescent paper as a further reference to the motive of “lighting up”.
Both, the posters of fellow graphic designers mentioned earlier as well as those discussed just before, should showcase the benefits of working with fitting metaphorical design concepts. For sure, the visual interpretation is always bound to the skills of the designer. However, using the method proposed in the book “Designing in Metaphors” or otherwise coming up with an underlying metaphorical concept for the design greatly improves the results as the metaphor guides many of the design decisions. Furthermore, it certainly helps to prevent one of the biggest, and unfortunately quite frequent, problems in contemporary graphic design: The total lack of any kind of underlying idea, which results in arbitrary, decorative graphics, of which the only point of reference were current trends.
When It’s Not the Right Time for FlowersNext Generation Campaign 2018
Every year the FHNW Academy of Art and Design commissions the “Next Generation” campaign, a year-long series of advertisements for their study programmes, graduates, and various informational events. For each iteration a new central motif chosen for which a visually coherent campaign design needs to be conceived and implemented. In 2018, the annual briefing included keywords such as “encounter”, “exchange”, “network”, and “collaboration” to describe the intended theme of the campaign. Diana Pfammatter was invited to shoot a series of photographs that should become a central visual element of the campaign. She decided to take further keywords as points of orientation for her image series. The words chosen ranged from “authentic”, “self-confident”, “no party, but fun exchange” to “young”, “contemporary”, and “diverse”. With the help of scenographer Hannah Weinberger, a space was created to which students of the graduation year were invited. They should bring flowers and plants to exchange with each other and use the occasion to celebrate with drinks and music. However, the event should first and foremost serve as an ideal setting for Pfammatter to shoot her intended series of photographs.
After the photographs were produced, the task of art directing and designing the campaign was handed over, which meant that critical steps that are usually undertaken in accordance with the designers were already made. The result was a briefing and a series of photographs that were certainly good on their own but did not align and posed a challenge for the design of the campaign. Different people involved in the project pointed at aspects that they found contradicting. Just to name a few of these aspects: The photographs appeared rather clean and staged, which did not fit with the intended authenticity. The intended diversity in the depicted gathering was not achieved as mostly young white women were shown. The gathering itself should not appear as a party, even though it actually was one, which ended up being obvious in most of the photographs. And at last, the decision to incorporate flowers into the party setting led to the impression that the depicted students were celebrating their graduation. While this would perfectly fit for the campaign during the time of graduations it seemed rather off-topic for other contexts, such as information events or open days.
Challenged with the given request of the client on the one side and the image material on the other, a design solution was needed. The first concrete idea was to use a different typeface than Unica77, which is the corporate typeface of the academy, to create a contrast to the photographs. Unica77 is a wonderful typeface on its own, but it has a very clean, modernist aesthetic, which would push the campaign design even further in the opposite direction of “authentic”, “contemporary”, and “diverse”. A few typefaces were sketched to broaden the aesthetic qualities within the campaign design and specifically include more rough and peculiar visuals. This way, the campaign should reflect more strongly the diversity of artistic positions coming together and therefore also turn out to be more authentic.
In the face of the approaching deadlines, it simply turned out to be an unattainable goal to properly draw multiple or even just one fitting typeface for the campaign. So this initial approach was dropped in favour of another idea, namely to focus on a composition with a strong typographical arrangement. The photographs should not solely be the main part of the campaign but only one of several components that form together the campaign design. The images and typographical elements were superimposed, nested and interwoven within each other. This way the composition as a whole became a metaphor for the idea of “encounter” and “exchange” as different visual elements were “coming together”.
In addition, a new wording was defined to adapt the campaign design for all the different occasions in which it would be used throughout the year. Instead of writing “NEXT” on all different applications, as it has been done in the previous year, the words “OPEN”, “INFO”, and “APPLY” were used for the corresponding occasion. This idea turned out to be particularly helpful in differentiating the various events because it allowed keeping the visual identity consistent. For that reason, this approach was continued in the following years by the other annually changing art directors.
All things considered, the main challenge of the Next Generation campaign 2018 was the realignment of the key components of the campaign which became necessary due to the late involvement of the designer. However, the partial gap between the goals defined in the initial briefing and the image material that had to be incorporated into the campaign could get resolved by carefully designed compositions. A closer look into this project reveals that effective art direction is critically facilitated or even made possible at all if the responsible figures are involved at the earliest possible point in time. Despite the challenging circumstances, though, the campaign turned out to reach its goals and attract the attention and interest of the relevant audience.